A river in flood essay
I was moving on the main road. I saw a large number of people, mostly villagers, coming from the opposite direction with their household goods and cattle.
Human Impacts on Flood Rhythms
I learnt that their houses and fields had been flooded. As I moved forward, I saw with my own eyes crops on either side of the road under knee deep water. I continued moving forwards on the main road which was constructed at a sufficiently high level. As I came close to the bridge over the river, I was halted from going forward by a policeman. I was told that the water in the river had crossed the danger mark and the bridge had been endangered and so traffic over it had been closed.
I looked on both sides. The whole area for miles on both sides had turned into a vast sea of water. Water was swirling and its level was rising rapidly. Numerous household goods were floating over it. I even found several head of cattle being carried away by the gushing water. As the water level had risen to an alarming height, and it seemed to be preparing to flow over the road also, I rushed back to my house to avoid any dangerous situation which might arise. Download the above Paragraph in PDF. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service.
You can view samples of our professional work here. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Floods are a major concern in many parts of the world due to the many losses experienced in time of floods.
Therefore, flood management techniques are very important in areas that are prone to frequent flooding.
Flood management techniques are structures designed with the aim of containing floodwater in order to control floodplains. The designing of flood control techniques entails estimating the levels of water that causes floods and then measuring the required height that will create a working flood defense. Floods generally occur when flowing surface water spills over the restraining banks into dry land.
Floods are a natural occurrence in almost all river systems. Areas that are prone to flooding include those that are located downstream of dams and low lying areas. Flooding causes vast losses which include human and animal life, soil erosion, damages of properties, destruction of vegetation and other environmental damages. Also, areas that are affected by floods could also be prone to droughts.
This can even cause further loss of human and animal lives. Flood waters are usually polluted with harmful bacteria resulting from sewage. This means that people affected by the floods are at greater risks of getting infective diseases Proverbs, et al. However, floods also have positive impacts on ecosystems. One benefit from flooding includes more fresh water for domestic and irrigation usage. Other benefits include large deposits of minerals and nutrients into affected areas. Apart from these, floods also help to improve the condition of water ecosystems.
However, they can be considered to be the most damaging compared to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes due to their frequencies. Techniques that are applied in controlling floods involve the adaptation of the river environment and areas which are close to the river. Flood control techniques can be applied on the river channel, floodway or on the floodplain Ghosh, , p. Floodplains are areas that lie below the flood elevation and entirely on the floodway and river channel. The majority of techniques applied on floodplains lie far from the river but they are designed to reduce flood damage.
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Levees can either be permanent or temporary. The principle of using levees and other barriers is to raise the height of structures located in floodplains which floodwater must then climb in order cause flooding. These structures are there to offer protection to structures. However, they put other structures at a high risk of flooding due to the then increased water retention in the floodplains.
Furthermore, serious damage to protected structures can then occur when the levees are unable to hold back floodwater. This is because the pressure that the floods hit the structure is extremely high compared to when there is no barrier Green, , p.
The use of levees, dykes and floodwalls has a negative impact on the natural river processes Harmancioglu, , p. Ideally, developed water spills should form a natural channel which provides a way for the floods to flow. Therefore, levees would reduce the ability of the floodplains to process floodwaters. The inability of the floodwaters to flow freely within the floodplains would interfere with fish in their aquatic habitat.
The river would respond by creating other channels in order to allow excess water to flow. The developed channels clear the backwater as well as reduce habitat complications Harmancioglu, , p. The main aim of creating detention ponds in floodplains is to collect the floodwaters once the river has reached its maximum capacity. Detention ponds are constructed away from the floodway but must be within the floodplain catchment.
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When directing water into the detention ponds it will have an impact on reducing the amount of water a river carries. This will have a negative impact on natural river processes due to the reduction of water flowing downstream. Reduced amount of downstream flow could then cause a reduction in sediment transport, which may lead to the rising of the ground level of the channel and deposition of fine sediments.
Techniques applied in floodplains
In addition, allowing water to flow into a detention pond may cause more water to flow into the pond than expected. This may lead to an increased development of river channels Ali, , p8. Detention ponds also create new surroundings for the breeding and maturing of fish. However, the construction of detention channels must be done in a way that creates a connection between the pond and the mainstream so that the rivers natural environment can be maintained.
Severe damage to the environment can occur when the detention ponds break down leading to flooding in the floodplains. The floodway is made of river banks and the active channel. In general, the floodway forms the part of land that is immediately next to the river. This piece of land allows flood waters to pass without raising the floods depth upstream.
One characteristic of floodways is the presence of small banks, either due to cuts made by previous floods or natural levees due to deposits from previous floodwater Mambretti, , p. This technique consists of cutting the riverbank backwards to produce a gentler slope Masoudian, , p.
It may involve replanting or resurfacing the bare bank using materials afterwards. Reducing the bank slope will have an impact on the increasing flood transportation at the channel level due to the increased bank width. This usually happens because reducing the bank slope increases the surface area of the bank channel, which then increases the volume of bank flow. However, if slope reduction is done through planting vegetation, it is likely that the bank stability will be increased.
Words Essay on a river in flood in India
This has an effect of creating a natural containment, which reduces the velocity of water. A reduction in the velocity of water then decreases the rates of soil and bank erosion. Vegetation along river banks may also trap sediments within flows, which may then lead to a buildup of banks, increasing the effectiveness of banks in controlling floods Masoudian, , p. The fact that reducing the bank slopes then also reduces erosion along the river banks has a negative impact on natural river processes.
Without erosion on the river banks there will be a reduced amount of sediments, a reduced level of wood debris and a reduced amount of channel migration.