Research paper on ww2 weapons
If the wind is in the wrong direction it could end up killing your own troops rather than the enemy. Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used. It was fired into the trenches in shells. It is colourless and takes 12 hours to take effect. Effects include: blistering skin, vomiting, sore eyes, internal and external bleeding. Death can take up to 5 weeks. The Zeppelin, also known as blimp, was an airship that was used during the early part of the war in bombing raids by the Germans.
They carried machine guns and bombs. However, they were abandoned because they were easy to shoot out of the sky.
They were developed to cope with the conditions on the Western Front. Its maximum speed was 3mph and it could not cross trenches. Induced nuclear fission was discovered in Germany in by Otto Hahn and expatriate Jews in Sweden , but many of the scientists needed to develop nuclear power had already been lost, due to anti-Jewish and anti-intellectual policies.
Nazi developed Particle Beam Weapon & electric gun/cannon
Scientists have been at the heart of warfare and their contributions have often been decisive. As Ian Jacob , the wartime military secretary of Winston Churchill , famously remarked on the influx of refugee scientists including 19 Nobel laureates , "the Allies won the [Second World] War because our German scientists were better than their German scientists". The Allies of World War II cooperated extensively in the development and manufacture of new and existing technologies to support military operations and intelligence gathering during the Second World War.
There are various ways in which the allies cooperated, including the American Lend-Lease scheme and hybrid weapons such as the Sherman Firefly as well as the British Tube Alloys nuclear weapons research project which was absorbed into the American-led Manhattan Project. Several technologies invented in Britain proved critical to the military and were widely manufactured by the Allies during the Second World War.
The origin of the cooperation stemmed from a visit by the Aeronautical Research Committee chairman Henry Tizard that arranged to transfer U. Tizard led a British technical mission, known as the Tizard Mission , containing details and examples of British technological developments in fields such as radar , jet propulsion and also the early British research into the atomic bomb. One of the devices brought to the U. Military weapons technology experienced rapid advances during World War II, and over six years there was a disorientating rate of change in combat in everything from aircraft to small arms.
Indeed, the war began with most armies utilizing technology that had changed little from World War I, and in some cases, had remained unchanged since the 19th century. For instance cavalry , trenches , and World War I-era battleships were normal in , however within only six years, armies around the world had developed jet aircraft , ballistic missiles , and even atomic weapons in the case of the United States.
Technology during World War II
The best jet fighters at the end of the war easily outflew any of the leading aircraft of , such as the Spitfire Mark I. The early war bombers that caused such carnage would almost all have been shot down in , many by radar-aimed, proximity fuse -detonated anti-aircraft fire, just as the "invincible fighter", the Zero , had by become the "turkey" of the "Marianas Turkey Shoot". In the navy the battleship, long seen as the dominant element of sea power, was displaced by the greater range and striking power of the aircraft carrier.
The chaotic importance of amphibious landings stimulated the Western Allies to develop the Higgins boat , a primary troop landing craft; the DUKW , a six-wheel-drive amphibious truck, amphibious tanks to enable beach landing attacks and Landing Ship, Tanks to land tanks on beaches. Increased organization and coordination of amphibious assaults coupled with the resources necessary to sustain them caused the complexity of planning to increase by orders of magnitude, thus requiring formal systematization giving rise to what has become the modern management methodology of project management by which almost all modern engineering , construction and software developments are organized.
In the Western European Theatre of World War II , air power became crucial throughout the war, both in tactical and strategic operations respectively, battlefield and long-range. Superior German aircraft, aided by ongoing introduction of design and technology innovations, allowed the German armies to overrun Western Europe with great speed in , largely assisted by lack of Allied aircraft, which in any case lagged in design and technical development during the slump in research investment after the Great Depression.
Since the end of World War I, the French Air Force had been badly neglected, as military leaders preferred to spend money on ground armies and static fortifications to fight another World War I-style war. As a result, by , the French Air Force had only planes and was together with RAF planes facing 5, Luftwaffe fighters and fighter-bombers. Most French airfields were located in north-east France , and were quickly overrun in the early stages of the campaign.
The Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom possessed some very advanced fighter planes, such as Spitfires and Hurricanes , but these were not useful for attacking ground troops on a battlefield, and the small number of planes dispatched to France with the British Expeditionary Force were destroyed fairly quickly. Subsequently, the Luftwaffe was able to achieve air superiority over France in , giving the German military an immense advantage in terms of reconnaissance and intelligence. German aircraft rapidly achieved air superiority over France in early , allowing the Luftwaffe to begin a campaign of strategic bombing against British cities.
Utilizing France's airfields near the English Channel the Germans were able to launch raids on London and other cities during the Blitz , with varying degrees of success. After World War I, the concept of massed aerial bombing—" The bomber will always get through "—had become very popular with politicians and military leaders seeking an alternative to the carnage of trench warfare, and as a result, the air forces of Britain, France, and Germany had developed fleets of bomber planes to enable this France's bomber wing was severely neglected, whilst Germany's bombers were developed in secret as they were explicitly forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles.
The bombing of Shanghai by the Imperial Japanese Navy on January 28, , and August and the bombings during the Spanish Civil War — , had demonstrated the power of strategic bombing, and so air forces in Europe and the United States came to view bomber aircraft as extremely powerful weapons which, in theory, could bomb an enemy nation into submission on their own. As a result, the fear of bombers triggered major developments in aircraft technology.
Nazi Germany had put only one large, long-range strategic bomber the Heinkel He Greif, with many delays and problems into production, while the America Bomber concept resulted only in prototypes. The Spanish Civil War had proved that tactical dive-bombing using Stukas was a very efficient way of destroying enemy troops concentrations, and so resources and money had been devoted to the development of smaller bomber craft.
As a result, the Luftwaffe was forced to attack London in with heavily overloaded Heinkel and Dornier medium bombers, and even with the unsuitable Junkers Ju These bombers were painfully slow—Italian engineers had been unable to develop sufficiently large piston aircraft engines those that were produced tended to explode through extreme overheating , and so the bombers used for the Battle of Britain were woefully undersized.
As German bombers had not been designed for long-range strategic missions, they lacked sufficient defenses.
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The Messerschmitt Bf fighter escorts had not been equipped to carry enough fuel to guard the bombers on both the outbound and return journeys, and the longer-range Bf s could be outmanoeuvred by the short-range British fighters. A bizarre feature of the war was how long it took to conceive of the Drop tank. The air defense was well organized and equipped with effective radar that survived the bombing.
As a result, German bombers were shot down in large numbers, and were unable to inflict enough damage on cities and military-industrial targets to force Britain out of the war in or to prepare for the planned invasion. British long-range bomber planes such as the Short Stirling had been designed before for strategic flights and given a large armament, but their technology still suffered from numerous flaws. The smaller and shorter ranged Bristol Blenheim , the RAF's most-used bomber, was defended by only one hydraulically operated machine-gun turret, and whilst this appeared sufficient, it was soon revealed that the turret was a pathetic defence against squadrons of German fighter planes.
American bomber planes such as the B Flying Fortress had been built before the war as the only adequate long-range bombers in the world, designed to patrol the long American coastlines. Despite the abilities of Allied bombers, though, Germany was not quickly crippled by Allied air raids. At the start of the war the vast majority of bombs fell miles from their targets, as poor navigation technology ensured that Allied airmen frequently could not find their targets at night.
The bombs used by the Allies were very high-tech devices, and mass production meant that the precision bombs were often made sloppily and so failed to explode. German industrial production actually rose continuously from to , despite the best efforts of the Allied air forces to cripple industry. Moreover, Allied air raids had a serious propaganda impact on the German government, all prompting Germany to begin serious development on air defence technology—in the form of fighter planes. The practical jet aircraft age began just before the start of the war with the development of the Heinkel He , the first true turbojet.
Late in the war the Germans brought in the first operational Jet fighter, the Messerschmitt Me However, despite their seeming technological edge, German jets were often hampered by technical problems, such as short engine lives, with the Me having an estimated operating life of just ten hours before failing.
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- Weapons of World War 2 Essay!
Other jet aircraft, such as the first and only Allied jet fighter of the war, the British Gloster Meteor , saw combat against German V-1 flying bombs  but did not significantly distinguish themselves from top-line, late-war piston-driven aircraft. Aircraft saw rapid and broad development during the war to meet the demands of aerial combat and address lessons learned from combat experience. From the open cockpit airplane to the sleek jet fighter, many different types were employed, often designed for very specific missions. During the war the Germans produced various Glide bomb weapons, which were the first smart bombs; the V-1 flying bomb, which was the first cruise missile weapon; and the V-2 rocket, the first ballistic missile weapon.
The last of these was the first step into the space age as its trajectory took it through the stratosphere, higher and faster than any aircraft. Wernher Von Braun led the V-2 development team and later emigrated to the United States where he contributed to the development of the Saturn V rocket, which took men to the moon in Prandtl coined the term boundary layer and founded modern mathematical aerodynamics. The laboratory lost its dominance when the researchers were dispersed after the war. The Axis countries had serious shortages of petroleum from which to make liquid fuel.
The Allies had much more petroleum production. Germany, long before the war, developed a process to make synthetic fuel from coal. The USA added tetra ethyl lead to its aviation fuel, with which it supplied Britain and other Allies. This octane enhancing additive allowed higher compression ratios, allowing higher efficiency, giving more speed and range to Allied Airplanes, and reducing the cooling load.
The Treaty of Versailles had imposed severe restrictions upon Germany constructing vehicles for military purposes, and so throughout the s and s, German arms manufacturers and the Wehrmacht had begun secretly developing tanks. As these vehicles were produced in secret, their technical specifications and battlefield potentials were largely unknown to the European Allies until the war actually began.
French and British Generals believed that a future war with Germany would be fought under very similar conditions as those of — Both invested in thickly armoured, heavily armed vehicles designed to cross shell-damaged ground and trenches under fire. At the same time the British also developed faster but lightly armoured Cruiser tanks to range behind the enemy lines.
Only a handful of French tanks had radios, and these often broke as the tank lurched over uneven ground. German tanks were, on the contrary, all equipped with radios, allowing them to communicate with one another throughout battles, whilst French tank commanders could rarely contact other vehicles. The Matilda Mk I tanks of the British Army were also designed for infantry support and were protected by thick armour.
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This was ideal for trench warfare, [ dubious — discuss ] but made the tanks painfully slow in open battles. Their light cannons [ dubious — discuss ] and machine-guns were usually unable to inflict serious damage on German vehicles. The exposed caterpillar tracks were easily broken by gunfire, and the Matilda tanks had a tendency to incinerate their crews if hit, [ citation needed ] as the petrol tanks were located on the top of the hull. By contrast the Infantry tank Matilda II fielded in lesser numbers was largely invulnerable to German gunfire and its gun was able to punch through the German tanks.
However French and British tanks were at a disadvantage compared to the air supported German armoured assaults, and a lack of armoured support contributed significantly to the rapid Allied collapse in World War II marked the first full-scale war where mechanization played a significant role.
Most nations did not begin the war equipped for this. Even the vaunted German Panzer forces relied heavily on non-motorised support and flank units in large operations. While Germany recognized and demonstrated the value of concentrated use of mechanized forces, they never had these units in enough quantity to supplant traditional units.
However, the British also saw the value in mechanization. For them it was a way to enhance an otherwise limited manpower reserve. The war was fought using a wide range of weapons, from personal guns like pistols and rifles, to larger weapons like machine guns. Explore our interactive sketch book. Click on different weapons and items to find out more about them.
The war was fought on land, sea and in the air.
New machines were being developed all the time to overcome the difficult conditions of battle. They prevented soldiers from being caught by barbed wire or gunfire. Cars were unsuitable because they could not get across the muddy ground. It weighed 18 tons and held a crew of two plus four gunners. It was the first completed tank in history but it never went out to war. The British Mark I tank was used in September It held ten men and reached speeds of almost four miles per hour.
Weapons Of World War 2 Essay
Battleships were the largest warships and had very big guns. A Destroyer was a small, fast warship which fired guns and torpedoes. They sailed to places ordinary ships could not get to and stopped enemy ships from getting too close to Britain. The British Royal Navy had the world's largest submarine service when war broke out.
This was originally done by either the pilot or co-pilot dropping a bomb over the side of the plane. Zeppelins carried around kilograms of bombs and carried out raids on England. However they were slow and eventually the British realised they could be shot and set on fire. The Gotha had a 24 metre wingspan, the length of two buses. It could fly for miles and carried kilograms of bombs to drop on Britain. It had a 42 metre wingspan, almost as wide as a football pitch.go site
Weapons of World War 2 Essay -- essays research papers fc
It could carry kilograms of bombs, four times as many as the Gotha. Not one Giant bomber was shot down during the war. New methods of photography, sound recording and ways to communicate changed the war too. This was in case it helped the enemy to find out secrets.